100-2 Final Exam of Global Technology Revolution

 

1. Please describe how cells make protein from DNA codes.

  (see answer from previous semsters)

 

2. In the film DNA Era: Episode (4), it was said that teloreme is a knife with two blades (advantages and disadvantages). On one hand it restricts the number of times that a body cell can divide, on the other hand it enhance the speed of evolution. Please describe the reason behind this fact.

Linear DNA has telomere at both of its ends, is necessary for bind DNA together like head of shoelace.

Each time DNA duplicate before cell mutiplication (or cell devision), the telomere become shorter. This will limits the number of times a (body) cell can devide, therefore most life form on earth is mortal.

However, with telomere, cell can perform an action to mix genes fom its two parant's (called Homologous Recombination, P) , thus diverse the change and vairety of evolution, ring like DNA has no telomere is uncapable of such function

 

3. What negative effect will occur if one's serotonin level is too low?

Depress, when serious could be suicidal.

 

4. What bad side effect may occur to the if fed animal with they are fed with lean meat powder?

Abnormal muscle contaction and fail to stand up.

 

5. Why is there DNA in mitochondria? Why analysing mitochondria DNA is a good way to trace the origin of human species?

It is believed that mitrochondria was ancient bacteria with its own DNA. When infected host cell the combined system become effcient (symbiosis). Which become an advantage in dompeeting with other cell and ultimately evolve successfully during evolution.

Mitochondria DNA is ring like, it change very slowly from one generation to another. Also for human the mitochondria is always from mother side, this aloow tracing back many many generations.

 

6. What can be the consequences of antibiotics abuse? Give two examples.

Unnecessary dosing antibiotics or not completing a full cycle of medication could partially kill bacteria and allow them to deveope resistance, if many kind of antibiotic is used this way then an ultimate cureless super-bacteria will appear.

Food containing antibiotics has same effect of creating ebvironment for bateria to develope reistance to the abused antibiotics.

 

7. Are genetically modified foods safe? Why is explicit labeling of it important?

Lake of long term and complete research and testing the the main issue of genetically modified food. This is because a proper test is either too expensive if not technologically possible. Some GOF take aggresive approach to engineer species to get edges in agirculture. they are only theoretically safe and sometimes even not fully agreed within scientific community.

The right of choice of consumers is the only thing we can enforce, and therefore the information to make products distigwishable through explicit labeling is important.

 

8. Given that the genetic similarity between human and rats is as high as 75%, but why the shape and functions of these two species are so different?

Human has estimated 50,000 genes, even 25% is already over 10,000. There is thus large difference between these two species.

 

9. From the bio- (genome) diversity view point, how to rationalise the idea of "patients with genetic disease are suffering on behalf of health people"?

Genome (genetic bank) always will diversity itself to adapt environment, this is its nature. There is no good or bad aspect on this. Chnge of genetic code could cause disease, so a certain number of population will be sick because of this. The rest of us (heathy poeple) should help those suffered.

 

10. What is a Gene?

One gene, one protien.